RFC 200, by Nathan Wiger: Revamp tie to support extensibility

Proposed on 7 September 2000, frozen on 20 September 2000, depends on RFC 159: True Polymorphic Objects proposed on 25 August 2000, frozen on 16 September 2000, also by Nathan Wiger and already blogged about earlier.

What is tie anyway?

RFC 200 was about extending the tie functionality as offered by Perl.

This functionality in Perl allows one to inject program logic into the system’s handling of scalars, arrays and hashes, among other things. This is done by assigning the name of a package to a data-structure such as an array (aka tying). That package is then expected to provide a number of subroutines (e.g. FETCH and STORE) that will be called by the system to achieve certain effects on the given data-structure.

As such, it is used by some of Perl’s core modules, such as threads, and many modules on CPAN, such as Tie::File. The tie functionality of Perl still suffers from the problems mentioned in the RFC.

It’s all tied

In Raku, everything is an object, or can be considered to be an object. Everything the system needs to do with an object, is done through its methods. In that sense, you could say that everything in Raku is a tied object. Fortunately, Rakudo (the most advanced implementation of the Raku Programming Language) can recognize when certain methods on an object are in fact the ones supplied by the system, and actually create short-cuts at compile time (e.g. when assigning to a variable that has a standard container: it won’t actually call a STORE method, but uses an internal subroutine to achieve the desired effect).

But apart from that, Rakudo has the capability of identifying hot code paths during execution of a program, and optimize these in real time.

Jonathan Worthington gave two very nice presentations about this process: How does deoptimization help us go faster from 2017, and a Performance Update from 2019.

Because everything in Raku is an object and access occurs through the methods of the classes of these objects, this allows the compiler and the runtime to have a much better grasp of what is actually going on in a program. Which in turn gives better optimization capabilities, even optimizing down to machine language level at some point.

And because everything is “tied” in Raku (looking at it using Perl-filtered glasses), injecting program logic into the system’s handling of arrays and hashes can be as simple as subclassing the system’s class and providing a special version of one of the standard methods as used by the system. Suppose you want to see in your program when an element is fetched from an array, one need only add a custom AT-POS method:

class VerboseFetcher is Array {    # subclass core's Array class
    method AT-POS($pos) {           # method for fetching an element
        say "fetching #$pos";        # tell the world
        nextsame                     # provide standard functionality

my @a is VerboseFetcher = 1,2,3;   # mark as special and initialize
say @a[1];  # fetching #1␤2

The Raku documentation contains an overview of which methods need to be supplied to emulate an Array and to emulate a Hash. By the way, the whole lemma about accessing data structure elements by index or key is recommended reading for someone wanting to grok those aspects of the internals of Raku.

Nothing is special

In a blog post about RFC 168 about making things less special, it was already mentioned that really nothing is special in Raku. And that (almost) all aspects of the language can by altered inside a lexical scope. So what the above example did to the Array class, can be done to any of Raku’s core classes, or any other classes that have been installed from the ecosystem, or that you have written yourself.

But it can be overwhelming to have to supply all of the logic needed to fully emulate an array or a hash. Especially when you first try to do this. Therefore the ecosystem actually has two modules with roles that help you with that:

Both modules only require you to implement 5 methods in a class that does these roles to get the full functionality of an array or a hash, completely customized to your liking.

In fact, the flexibility of the approach of Raku towards customizability of the language, actually allowed the implementation of Perl’s tie built-in function in Raku. So if you’re porting code from Perl to Raku, and the code in question uses tie, you can use this module as a quick intermediate solution.

Has the problem been fixed?

Let’s look at the problems that were mentioned with tie in RFC 200:

  1. It is non-extensible; you are limited to using functions that have been implemented with tie hooks in them already.

Raku is completely extensible and pluggable in (almost) all aspects of its implementation. There is no limitation to which classes one can and one cannot extend.

  1. Any additional functions require mixed calls to tied and OO interfaces, defeating a chief goal: transparency.

All interfaces use methods in Raku, since everything is an object or can be considered as one. Use of classes and methods should be clear to any programmer using Raku.

  1. It is slow. Very slow, in fact.

In Raku, it is all the same speed during execution. And every customization profits from the same optimization features like every other piece of code in Raku. And will be, in the end, optimized down to machine code when possible.

  1. You can’t easily integrate tie and operator overloading.

In Raku, operators are multi-dispatch subroutines that allow additional candidates for custom classes to be added.

  1. If defining tied and OO interfaces, you must define duplicate functions or use typeglobs.

Typeglobs don’t exist in Raku. All interfacing in Raku is done by supplying additional methods (or subroutines in case of operators). No duplication of effort is needed, so no such problem.

  1. Some parts of the syntax are, well, kludgey

One may argue that the kludgey syntax of Perl has been replaced by another kludgey syntax in Raku. That is probably in the eye of the beholder. Fact is that the syntax in Raku for injecting program logic, is not different from any other subclassing or role mixins one would otherwise do in Raku.


Nothing from RFC 159 actually was implemented in the way it was originally suggested. However, solutions to the problems mentioned have all been implemented in Raku.

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